BPSC Mains Syllabus

BPSC Mains Syllabus


General studies papers I and paper II will cover the following areas of knowledge:-


  • Modern History of India and Indian culture.
  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • Statistical analysis, graphs and diagrams.
  • Modern History of India and Indian Culture will cover the broad history of the country (with special reference to Bihar) from about the middle of nineteenth century.
  • The modern history of Bihar will include questions on the introduction and expansion of western education (including technical education). It will also have questions on Bihar’s role in the freedom struggle of India.
  • Questions will relate to the Santhal Uprising, 1857 in Bihar, Birsa movement, Champaran Satyagrah and the Quit India Movement 1942.
  • A knowledge of the chief features of Mauryan and Pal art and Patna Qulam painting will be expected from the examinees. It would also include questions or Gandhi, Tagore and Nehru.
  • The part relating to statistical analysis, graphs and diagrams will include exercises to test the candidate’s ability to draw common sense conclusions from information presented in statistical, graphical or diagrammatical form and to point out deficiencies, limitations or inconsistencies therein.


  • Indian Polity:
  • Indian economy and Geography of India; and
  • The role and impact of science and technology in the development of India.
  • The part relating to Indian Polity, will include questions on the political system in India including Bihar.
  • In the part pertaining to the Indian Economy and Geography of India, questions will be put on planning in
    India and the physical, economic and social geography of India and Bihar.
  • In the third part relating to the roleand impact of science and technology in the development of India, questions will be asked to test the candidate’s awareness of the role and impact of science and technology in India and Bihar Emphasis will be on applied aspects.

BPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper-III (Optional Subject)

BPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper-III (Optional Subject) - AGRICULTURE

Section- I

  • Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their management and conservation.
  • Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production.
  • Climatic elements as factors of crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern as indicators of environments.
  • Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans.
  • Agro-climatic Zones of Bihar; Cropping pattern in different agro-climatic zones of the country-with special reference to North Bihar, South Bihar, and Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana plateau.
  • Impact of high-yielding and short duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns in Bihar. Concept of multiple cropping, mixed cropping, relay and inter-cropping and their importance in relation to food production.
  • Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibre, sugar and commercial crops grown during kharif and rabi seasons in different regions of the country.
  • Important spices crops of Bihar-chillies, ginger, turmeric and coriander.
  • Important features, scope and propagation of various types of forestry plantations, such as extension/social forestry, agro forestry and natural forests.
  • Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops, their multiplication; integrated weed management; cultural, biological and chemical control of weeds.
  • Processes and factors of solid formation, classification of Indian soils including modern concepts, Major soil types of Bihar; Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity.
  • Problem soils-extent and distribution in India; Problems of soil salinity, alkalinity and acidity and their management.
  • Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial clements in soil and plants, their occurrence, factors aftecting their distribution, functions and cycling in soils.
  • Symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation, Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertilçer use; bio-fertilçers.
  • Problems of Tal Diara and chour lands inBihar, cropping system in such situations.
  • Soil conservation planning on water-shed basis, Erosion and runoff management in foot hills and valley lands; processes and factors aftecting them Dry land agariculture and its problems.
  • Technolgoy for stabilising agriculture production in rainfed agriculture area.
  • Water use efficiency in relation to crop production criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing runoff losses of irrigation water.
  • Drainage of Water-logged soils. Role of different command area Development Agencies in agricultural development of Bihar. Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics. Farm planning and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems.
  • Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs; price fluctuations, Types and systems of Farming and factors affecting them. Role of Co-operative marketing and credit in agricultural development of Bihar.
  • Trend of agricultural production during the last two decades in Bihar Pace of land reforms in Bihar and result out impact on agriculatural productivity.
  • Argicultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes; Important extension methods and media, rural leader ship, socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers. Farm mechançation and its role in agricultural production and rural employment. Training programmes for extension workers.
  • Krishi Vigyan Kendras, role of non-government organçations (N.G.Os) in extension.

Section- II

  • Genesis and growth of Agricultural research and education system in Bihar.
  • Application of principles of plant breeding to the improvement of major field crops, methods of breeding of self and cross-pollinated crops. Introduction selection, hybridçation heterosis and its exploitation.
  • Male sterility and self incompatability, utilçation of Mutation and polyploidy in breeding, use of biotechnology and tissue culture in agriculture.
  • Heredity and variation, Mendal's law of inheritance, chromosomal theory of inheritance, cytoplasmic inheritance, sex linked, sex influenced and sex limited characters.
  • spontaneous and induced mutations.
  • Quantitative characters.
  • Important recommended varieties of principal crops in Bihar. Origin and domestication of field crops.
  • Morphology patterns of variation in varieties and related species of important field crops, causes and utilçation of variation in crops improvement.
  • Seed Technology and its importance; production, processing and testing of seeds of crop plants.
  • Role of National and State seed organçation in production, processing and marketing of improved seed.
  • Physiology and its significance in agriculture, Nature, physical properties and chemical constitution of protoplasm, Imbibation, surface tension, diffusion and osmosis.
  • Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration and water economy.
  • Eæymes and plant pigments photosynthesis, modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
  • Growth and development: photo periodism and vernalçation. Auxim, harmones and other plant regulators and their mechanism of action and importance in agriculture.
  • Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits and vegetables in Bihar; their recommended package of practices.
  • Handling and marketing problems of fruits and vegetables; principal methods of preservation, important fruits and vegetable products. Processing techniques and equipments.
  • Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition; landscape and floriculture including raising of ornamental plants and design and lay-out of lands and garden.
  • Diseases and pests of field, vegetable, orchard and plantation crops of Bihar and their causes and management. Classification of plant diseases; principles of plant diseases control including exclusion, eradication, immunçation and protection. Biological control of pests and diseases.
  • Intergarted management of pests and diseases. Pesticides and their formulation. Plant quarantine.
  • Storage pests of cereals and pulses; hygiene of storage godown, preservation and remedial measures.
  • Hazards of pesticides use and safety measures.
  • Status and scope of rearing beneficial insects in Bihar; honey bees, silk worm and lac insect. Rice fish culture in Bihar.
  • Recurrent menace of flood and drought in Bihar and contingency crop planning, food Production and consumption trends in India, in general and Bihar, in particular.
  • National and International food policies, procurement, distribution, processing and production constraints, Relation of food production to national dietary pattern, major deficiencies of calorie and protein.


Section- I

1. Animal Nutrition- Energy sources, energy metabolism and requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs and wool. Evaluation of feeds as sources of energy.
1.1 Advanced studies in Nutrition Protein- Sources of protein, metabolism and synthesis, protein quantity and quality in relation to requirements. Energy protein ration in a ration.
1.2 Advanced studies in Nutrition Minerals. – Sources, functions, requirements and their relationship of the basic mineral nutrients including trace elements.
1.3 Vitamins, Hormones and Growth Stimulating substances—Sources, functions, requirements and interrelationship with minerals.
1.4 Advanced Ruminant Nutrition Dairy Cattle– Nurtients and their metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition. Nutrients requirements for calves, heifers, dry and milking cows and buffaloes. Limitations of various feeding systems.
1.5 Advanced Non-Ruminant Nutrition Poultry- Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to poultry, meat and egg production. Nutrients requirements and feed formulation and broilers at different ages.
1.6 Advanced Non-Ruminant Nutrition Swine – Nutrients and their metabolism with special reference to growth and quality of meat production Nutrients requirements and feed formation for baby-growing and finishing pigs.
1.7 Advanced Applied Animal Nutrition- A critical review and evaluation of feeding experiments, digestibility and balance studies. Feeding standards and measure of feed energy. Nutrition requirements for growth, maintenance and production. Balanced rations.

2. Animal Physiology:

2.1 Growth and Animal Production- Prenatal and post-natal growth maturation , growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.
2.2 Milk Production and Reproduction and Digestion– Current status of hormonal control of mammary development milk secretion and milk ejection, composition of milk of cows and buffaloes. Male and female reproduction organs, their components and function. Digestive organs and their functions.
2.3 Environmental Physiology- Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaption, environmental factors and regulatory mechanism involved in animal behavior, methods of controlling climatic stress.
2.4 Semen quality, Presevation and Artificial Insemination – Components of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejeculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen preservation compostition of diluents, sperm concentration transport of diluted semen. Deep Freezing techniques in cows, sheep and goats, swine and poultry.

3. Livestock Production and Management:

3.1 Commercial Dairy Farming- Comparison or dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under mixed farming and as a specialised farming; economic dairy farming, starting of a dairy farm. Capital and land requirement, organisation of the dairy farm, Procurement of goods; opportunities in dairy farming factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production; pricing policy; Personnel Management.
3.2 Feeding practices of dairy cattle – Developing Practical and Economic ration for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout, the year, field and fodder requirements of Dairy farm. Feeding regimes for day and young stock and bulls heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding young and adult stock: Feeding records.
3.3 General Problems of sheep, goat, pigs and poultry management.
3.4 Feeding of animals under drought conditions.

4. Milk Technology:

4.1 Organçation of rural milk procurement, collection, and transport of raw milk.
4.2 Quality testing and grading raw milk. Quality storage grades of whole milk, skimmed milk and cream.
4.3 Processing packaging storing distributing marketing defects and their control and nutritive properties of the following milks. Pasteurçed, standardçed, toned, double tones sterilçed, Homogençed, reconstituted, recombined, field and flavoured milks.
4.4 Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management Vitamin D soft curd acidified and other special milks.
4.5 Legal standards, Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.

Section- II

1. Genetics and Animal Breeding: Probability applied to Mendelian inheritance Hardy Weiberg Law Concept and measurement of inbreeding and heterozygosity Wright's approach in contrast to Melecot's Estimation of Parameters and Measurements. Fisher's theorem of natural selection, polymorphism polygenic Systems and
inheritance of quantitative traits. Casual Components of Variation Biometerical models and covariance between relatives. The theory of pathocoefficient applied to quantitative genetic analysis. Heritability Repeatability and selection models.
1.1 Population, Genetics applied to Animal Breeding. – Population vs. individual, population sçe and factors changing it. Gene numbers, and their estimation in farm animals, gene frequency and zygotic frequency and forces changing them, Mean and variance approach to equilibrium under different situations, sub-division of phenotypic variance; estimation of additive, Non additive genetic and environmental variances in Animal Population, Mendelism and blending inheritance. Genetic nature of differences between species, races, breeds and other sub specific grouping and the grouping and the origin of group differences Resemblances between relatives.
1.2 Breeding systems- Heritability, repeatability, genetics and environmental correlations methods of estimation and the precision of estimates of animal data Review of biometrical relations between relatives. Mating system, inbreeding, out breeding and used phenotypic assertive mating Aids to selections. Family structure of animal population under non-random mating systems. Breeding for threshold traits, selections index, its precision. General and specific combining ability. Choice of effective breeding plans. Diffferent types and methods of selection, their effectiveness and limitations, selection indices construction of selection in retrospect; evaluation of genetic gains through selection, correlated response in animal experimentations. Approach to estimation of general and specific combining ability, Diallete fractional diallete crosses, reciprocal
recurrent selection; in breeding and hydrçation.
2. Health and Hygiene- Anatomy of Ox and fowl. Histological technique, freezing, paraffin embeding etc. Preparation and staining of blood films.
2.1 Common histological stains, Embryology of a cow.
2.2 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion, Endocrine glands in health and disease.
2.3 General Knowledge of pharmacology and the repeutics of drugs.
2.4 Vety-Hygiene with respect of water, air and habitation.
2.5 Most common cattle and poultry diseases, their mode of infection, prevention and treatment etc. Immunity, General Principles and Problems of meat inspection Jurisprudence of Vet practice.
2.6 Milk Hygiene.
3. Milk Product Technology– Selection of raw materials, assembling production. processing, storing, distributing and marketing milk products such as Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese, condensed, evaporated dried milk and baby foods; Ice cream and Kulfi, by products; whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein; testing Grading, gudging mill products – ISI and Agmark specification, legal standards, Quality control nutritive properties. Packaging processing and operational control Costs.
4. Meat Hygiene.
4.1 Zoonosis Diseases transmitted from animals to man.
4.2 Duties and role of Veterinarians in a slaughter house to provide meat that is produced under ideal hygienic conditions.
4.3 By products from slaughter houses and their economic utilçation.
4.4 Methods of collection, preservation and processing of hormonal glands for medicinal use.
5. Extension:
5.1 Extension Different methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions.
5.2 Urilisation of fallen animals for profit-extension education etc.
5.3 Define Trysem. – Different possibilities and methods to provide self Employment to educated youth under
rural conditions.
5.4 Cross breeding as a method of upgrading the local cattle.



Section- I

There are three sections. Section- I, Section-II & Section- III. Each Section carries 100 marks. Section I & Section III are compulsory. Candidates may offer either Section II-a or II-b. in Section- II


I. Meaning and scope of Anthropology and its main branches: (1) Social-Cultural Anthropology, (2) Physical Anthropology, (3) Archaeological Anthropology, (4) Linguistic Anthropology, (5) Applied Anthropology.
II. Community and Social Institutions, Group and association; culture and civilisation; band and tribe.
III. Marriage.- The problems of universal definition; incest and prohibited categories preferential forms of marriage; marriage payments; the family as the corner stone of human society; universality and the family, funcation of the family forms of family-usnclear, extended, joint etc. Stability and change in the family. Forms of marriage. Family and marriage among polyandrous tribes.
IV. Kinship, Desecent, residence, alliance, kins terms and kinship behavior, Lineage and clan Kinship categories.
V. Economic Anthropology; Meaning and scope; mode of exchanger; barter and ceremonial exchange, reciprocity and redistribution; market and trade.
VI. Political Anthropology; Meaning and scope; The locus and power and the functions of legitimate authority in different societies. Difference between State and Stateless political systems. Nation-building processes in new State, law and Justice in simpler societies.
VII. Origins of religion animism and animatism. Difference between religions and magic. Totemism and Taboo.
VIII. Fieldwork and fieldwork traditions in Anthropology.
IX. Study of social organçation, youth organçation, Economic organçation, Political organçation and Religion among Indian Tribes-Oraon, Munda, Ho, Santhal and Birhors of Bihar.


1. Foundation of the theory of organic evolution Lamarckism. Darwinism and the Synthetic theory, Human evolution, biological and cultural dimensions, Microevolution.
2. The Order Primate.- A comprative study of Primates with special reference to the anthoropoid apes and man.
2. (a) Place of Man among animals. – Pisces, Amphibia, Reptiles, Aves, Mamalia, clarification of Mamalia and anthroids.
2. (b) A comparative analysis of anatomical similarities and dissimilarities in man and apes. Intelligence and
social life of monkey and apes.
3. Fossil evidence of human evolution.- Lemurids, Tamrioids, Poragpithicus, Prophilopithicus, pliopithicus, Lemnopithicus, Procunsul, Driopithicus, Ramapithecus, Australopithecines, Australopithecus Africanus, Plesianthropus transvalensis, Australopithecus, Prometheus, Paranthropus robustus, Homoertus and
4. Genetics; Definitaion- The Mendelian principles and its application to human populations. The effects of nutrition, inbreeding and hy-bridçation.
5. (a) Definition of Race;- concept of pure race; race, nation and linguistic groups; race and cultural activities; Racism and dangerous myth.
(b) Racial differentiation of Man and bases of racial classification morphological serilogical and genetic, Role of heredity and environment in the formation of races.
(c) Bass/criterias of racial classification skin colour, Hair, stature, Head form, face form, nose, eye, types of blood groups.
6. Varieties of the Modern Races of Man- the three major races and their sub-races, caucaosoids and its subdivisions. Archaic caucosoid races, Mongoloids and its subdivisions, Negroids and its subdivisions. The American Negros, a comparative study of their Physical genetic and intelligence, similarties and differences.
7. Races in India:-
1. Classification of Riseley with his criticisms

  • Classification of Haldon
  • Classification of Eickutodt
  • Classification of Guha
  • Classification of Sarkar
  • The Negrito Racial Elements In India


1. Technique, method and methodology distinguished.
2. Meaning of evolution biological and socio-cultural. The basic assumptions of 19th century evolutionism. The comparative method. Contemporary trends in evolutionary studies.
3. Diffusion and diffusionism—American distributionism and historical ethnology of the german speeking ethnologists. The attack on the "the" comparative method by diffusionists and Fraæ Boas. The nature, purpose and methods of comparision in social cultural, anthoropology. Redcliffe-Brown, Eggan Oscar Lewis and Sarana.
4. Patterns basic personality construct and model personality. The relevance of anthropological approach to national character studies. Recent trends in sychological anthropology.
5. Funcation and cause. Malinowski's contribution to functionalism in social anthropology. Function and structure Redcliffe-Brown. Firth Fortes and Nadel.
6. Structuralism in linguistics and in social anthropology Levistrauss and Leach in viewing social structure as a model. The structuralist method in the study of myth. New ethnography and formal semantic analysis.
7. Norms and Values. Values as a category of anthropological description. Values of anthropologist and anthropology as source of values. Cultural relativism and the issue of universal values.
8. Social anthropology and history, Scientific and humanistic studies distinguished. A critical examination of the plea for the unity of method of the natural and social sciences. The nature and logic of anthropological field work method and its autonomy.
9. (a) Theories and Methods in Anthropologyl
Evolution and comparative Methods;
Herbert Spencer, L H. Morgan, and Edward Burnett Tylor. Limitations.
(b) Particularism:-
Fraæ Boas, A. L. Kroeber, Ruth Benediet Ralph Lintani and Abram Kardiner. Limitations of particularistic approach.
(c) Structive and Function approach.
Emile Durkheim, Pronislar Malinowski, A.R. Redcliffe Brown, Leslic A white, Evans Pritchard and Levi Strous.
10. Contributions of Anthropology to planning and Development: Development studies Socio-cultural dimensions of planned development socio-cultural parameters of Directed change, cultural hurdles to technological changes among tribes in India. Tribal problems-causes, consequences and solutions.
11. Social movement tribal movement, meaning and features. Tribal movement in Bihar Tana Bhagat and Birsa Movement, Changing scenes of tribal movement in Bihar. Tribal leadership in Bihar.


1. Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic Protohistoric (Indus civilçation) dimensions of Indian culture.
2. Distribution of racial and linguistic elements in Indian population.
3. The bases of Indian social system: Varna, Ashram, Purushartha, Caste, Joint Family.
4. The growth of Indian anthropology. Distinctiveness of anthropological contribution in the study of tribal and peasant sections of the Indian population. The basic concepts use. Great tradition and little tradition; Sacred complex Universalçation and chialçation. Sanskritçation and Westernçation; Dominant Caste Tribe-Caste
continuum. Nature-Man-Spirit complex.
5. Ethnographic profiles of Indian tribes racial linguistic and socio-economic characteristic. Problems of tribal peoples; Land-alienation, indebtedness, lack of educational facilities, shifting cultivation, migration forests and tribls unemployment agricultural labour. Special problems of hunting and food gathering and other miner tribes.
6. The problems of culture contact; impact of urbançation and industrialçation depopulation regionalism economic and sychological frustrations.
7. History of tribal administration. The constitutional safeguards for the Scheduled Tribes Policies, Plans programmes of tribal development and their implementations. The response of the tribal people to the Government measures for them. The different approaches to tribal problems. The role of anthropology in tribal development.
8. The constitutional provisions regarding the Scheduled Castes. Social disabilities suffered by the scheduled castes and the socio-economic problems faced by them.
9. Issues relating to national Intergration.


Section- I
1. Microbiology:- Viruses, bacteria plasmids-structure and reproduction. General account of infection and
immunology. Microbes in agriculture, industry and medicine, and air, soil and water. Control of pollution using
2. Pathology- Important plant diseases in India caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma fungi and nematodes.
Modes of infection, dissemination, physiology of parasitism and methods of control. Mechanic of action of
biocides. Fungal toxins.
3. Cryptogams- Structure and reproduction from evolutionary aspect, and ecology and economic importance of
algae, fungi, bryophytes and pteridophytes. Principal distribution in India.
4. Phanerogams:- Anatomy of wood secondary growth Anatomy of C2 and C2 plants, stomatal types,
Fmbroyology, barriers to sexual incompatibility. Seed structure. Apomixis and polyembroyony Polynology and
its applications. Comparison of systems of classification of angiosperms. Modern trends is biosystematics.
Taxonomic and economic importance of cyadacoae, Pinacoee, Gentabes, Magnoliacea. Ramunculaceae,
Cruciferac, Rosaceae. Leguminosee Euploiacece, Malvaceae. Dipterocarpaceae, Umbellifcrae, Asclepiadaceae,
Verbenaceae, Solanaoceae, Pubiaceae Cucuribitaceae, Compositae, Gramineae, Palmae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and
5. Morphogenesis – Polarity, symmetry and totiuotency. Differentiation and dedifferentiation of cells and
organs, Factors of morphogenes Methodology and applications of cell, tissue, organ and protoplant cultures from
vegetative and reproductive parts Somatic hybrids.
Section- II
1. Cell Biology—Scope and perspective. General Knowledge of modern tools and techniques in the study of
cytology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic selis-structural and ultrastructural details Functions of organelles including
membrances. Detailed study of mitosis, meiosis. Numerical and structural variations in chromosome and their
significance, study of polytene and lampbrush chromosomes structure, behavior and cytological significance.
2. Genetics and Evolution- Development of genetics and gene concept. Structure and role of nucleic acids in
protein synthesis and reproduction. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression, Gene amplification Mutation
and evolution. Multiple factors linkage and crossing over. Methods of gene mapping. Sex chromosomes and sexlinked inheritance. Malesterility, its significance in plant breeding. Cytoplasmic inheritance elements of human
genetic. Standard deviation and Chi-square analysis Gene transfer in micro-organisms. Genetic engineering.
Organic evolution evidence, mechanism and theories.
3. Physiology and Biochemistry- Detailed study of water relations. Mineral nutrition and ion/transport. Mineral
deficiencies Photosynthesis mechanism and importance, photosystems I and II, photorespiration, Respiration and
fermentation. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Protein synthesis. Eæymes, Importance of secondary
metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors, photoporiodism, flowering.
Growth indices, growth movements. Sahescence.
Growth substance- Their chemical nature, role and applications in agrihorticulture.
Agrochemicals, Stress physiology, Vernalçation Fruit and seed physiology- dormancy, storage and germination
of seed, Perthenocarphy fruit ripening.
4. Ecology- Ecological factors. Concept and dynamics of community, succession. Concept of biospheres.
Conservation of ecosystems. Pollution and its control. Forest types of India. Aforestation, deforestation and
social forestry. Endangered plants.
5. Economic Botnay- Origin of cultivated plants. Stydy of plants as sources of food, fodder and forage, fatty
oils, wood and timber, fiber, paper rubber, bevarages, alcohol, drugs, narcotics, resins and gums essential oils,
dyes, mucilage, insecticides and pesticides. Plant indicators, Ornamental plants, Energy plantation.
Section- I
1. Atomic structure and Chemical bonding: Quantum theory, Haisenberg's uncertainty principle, Schrodinger
wave equation (time independent). Interpretation of the wave function, particle in a one-dimensional box,
quantum members, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s p and d orbitals Ionic bond; Lattice energy, BornHaber Cycle, Fajan's Rule dipole moment, characteristics of ionic compounds, electronegativity differences
covalent bond and its general characteristics valence bond approach. Concept of resonance and resonance
energy. Electronics configuration of H2+H2. N2, O2, F2, NO, CO and HF molecules in terms of molecular
orbital approach. Sigma and pibonds. Bond order, bond strength and bond length.
2. Thermodynamics – Work heat and energy. First law of thermodynamics. Enthalpy, heat capacity
Relationship between Cp and Cv. Laws of thermochemistry, Kirchoff's equation. Spontaneous and nonspontaneous changes, second law of thermodynamics. Entropy changes in gases for reversible and irreversible
processes. Third law of thermodynamics. Free energy, variations of free energy of a gas with temperature,
pressure and volume. Gibbs-Helmbolty equation. Chemical potential. Thermodynamic criteria for equilibrium.
Free energy change in chemical reactions and equilibrium constant. Effect of temperature and pressure on
chemical equilibrium. Calculation of equilibrium constants from thermodynamic measurements.
3. Solid State—Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles. Crystal systems and crystal classes
(crystallorgaphi groups) Designation of crystal faces, lattice structure and unit cell. Laws of rational indices.
Bragg's law, X-ray diffraction by crystals. Defects in crystals. Elementary study of liquid crystals.
4. Chemical kinetics- Order and molecularity of reaction. Rate equations (differential and intergrated forms) of
zero, first and second order reaction. Half life of a raction. Effect of temperature, pressure and catalysts on
reaction rates. Collission theory of reaction rates of bimolecular reactions. Absolute reaction rate theory. Kinetics
of polymerçation and photo chemical reactions.
5. Electrochemistry – Limitations of Arrhenius theory of dissociation, Debye Muckel theory of strong
electrolytes and its quantitative treatment. Electrolytic conductance theory and theory of activity coefficients.
Derivation of limiting laws for various equalibria and transport properties of electrolyte solutions.
6. Concentration cells, liquid junction potential, application of e.m.f. measurements of fuel cells.
7. Photochemistry- Absorption of light. Lambert-Beer's law, Laws of photo chemistry. Quantum efficiency.
Reasons for high and low quantum yields. Photoelectric cells.
8. General Chemistry of 'd' block elements:
(a) Electronic configuration: Introduction to theories of bonding in transition metal complexes, crystal field
Theory and its modification; applications of the theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spectra
of meta complexs.
(b) Metal Carbonyls: Cyclopentadienyl, Olefin and acetylene complexes.
(c) Compoundes with metal- metals bonds and metal atom clusters.
9. General Chemistry of 'f ' block elements: Lanthanides and actinides; separation, Oxidation, states, magnetic
and spectral properties.
10. Reactions in non-aqueous solevent (liquid ammonia and sulphur dioxide).
Section- II
1. Reaction mechanisms; General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanisms of organic
reactions illustrated by examples.
Formation and stability of reactive intermediates (carbocations, carbanious free radicals. carbenes, nitrenes and
SN1 and SN2 mechanisms. – H, E2 and E1 CB eliminations-cis and trans addition to carbon to carbon double
bonds mechanisms of addition to carbon-oxygen double bonds-Micheal addition addition to conjugated carboncarbon double bonds aromatic electrophillic and nuclephilic substitutions allylic and beæylic substitutions.
2. Pericyclic reactions: classification and examples an elementary study of Woodward Hoff-mann rules of
pericylic reactions.
3. Chemistry of the following name reactions: aldol condensation, Claysen condensation, Dieck mann reaction,
Perkin reaction, Reimer-Tiemann reaction, Cannçzaro reaction.
4. Polymeric Systems:
(a) Physical chemistry of polymers; End group analysis, Sedimentation, Light Scattering and Viscosity of
(b) Polythylene Polystyrene, Polyvinyl Chloride, Ziegler Natta Catalysis, Nylon, Terylene.
(c) Inorgenic Polymeric Systems; Phosphonitric halide compounds; silicones; Borazines.
Friedel- Craft reaction Reformatsky reaction, pinacol-pinacilone wagner Meerwein and Backman rearrangements
and their mechanisms uses of the following reagents in organic synthesis O5 O4, HIO4, NBS dibocrane, Naliquid ammonia NaBH4, LiAN4.
5. Photochemical reactions of organic and inorganic compounds types of reactions and examples and synthetic
uses- Mehods used in structure determination: Prinicples and applications of uv- Visible IR, IH, NMH and mass
spectra for structure determination of simple organic and inorganic molecules.
6. Molecular structural deter mination; Prinicples and application to simple organic and inorganic Molecules.
(i) Rotational spectra of diatomicmolecules (Infrared and Raman) isotopic substitution and rotational constants.
(ii) Vibrational spectra of diatomic, linear symmetric, linear asymmetric and bent tri-atomic molecules (Infrared
and Raman).
(iii) Specificity of the funcational groups (Infrared and Raman)
(iv) Electronic Spectra singlet and triplet states, conjugated double bonds, unsaturated carbonyl compounds.
(v) Nuclear Magenetic Reasonance; chemical shift, spin-spin coupling.
(vi) Electron Spin Reasonance, Study of inorganic complexes and free radicals.
Section- I
Part- A Theory and Design of Structures:
(a) Theory of structures: Energy theorems – Castigliano theorems I and II, unit load method and method of
consistent deformation applied to beams and pinjointed plane frames, Slope deflection, moment distribution and
Kani method of analysis applied to indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Moving loads, criteria, for maximum sheer force and bending moment in beams traversed by a system of moving
loads. Influence Lines for simply supported plane pinjointed girders.
Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and fixed archesfrib shortening and temperature effects Infiuence lines.
Matrix methods of analysis: Force method and displacement method.
(b) Structural steel: Factors of safety and load factors.
Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section, riveted and welded plate girders, gantry
girders, stanchions with battons and lacings, Slab and gusseted braces.
Design of highway and railway bridges- Through and deck type plate girder, Warren girder and Pratt Truss.
(c) Reinforced concrete. Limit state method design- Recommendations of IS codes- Design of one way and
two-way slabs, staircase slabs, simple and continuons beams of rectangular, T and L sections.
Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity, footings, isolated and combined.
Retaining walls, cantilever and counterfort types- Methods and systems of prestressing, Anchorages. Analysis
and design of sections for flexure, loss of prestress.
Part- B Fluid Mechanics:
Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curved surfaces.
Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid Flow: Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity,
irrotational and rotational flows, velocity potential and stream function, flow-nets and methods of drawing flow
net, sources and sinks, flow separation and stagnation.
Euler's equation of motion, energy and momentum equations and their applications to pipe flow, free and forced
vortices, plane and curved stationary and moving vanes, sluice gates, weirs, orifice meters and venturimeters.
Dimensional Analysis and similitude: Buckinghham's Pi-theorem, similarities, model laws, undistorted and
distorted models, movable bed models, model calibration.
Laminar Flow: Laminar flow between paralled stationary and moving plates, flow through tubes, Reynolds'
experiments, lubrication principles.
Boundary Layers: Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub-layer, smooth and rough
boundaries, drag and lift.
Turbulent Flow Through Pipes: Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of friction
factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line, siphons, expansions and contractions in pipes, pipe network,
water hammer.
Open Channel Flow: Uniform, non-uniform flows, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, resistance
equations and variation of roughness coefficient, Rapidly varied flow, flow in contractions, flow at sudden drop,
hydraulic jump and its applications, surges and waves, Gradually varied Flow, differential equation of gradually
varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation.
Part- C Soil Mechanics and foundation Engineering:
Soil Compositoin, influence of clay minerals on engineering behavior, Effective stress principle, change in
effective stress due to water flow condition, static water table and steady flow conditions permeability and
compressibility of soils.
Strength behavior, strength determination through direct and triaxial tests, total and effective stress strength
parameters, total and effective stress path.
Methods of site exploration, planning a subsurface exploration programme, sampling procedures and
sampling disturbance, penetration tests and plate load tests and data interpretation.
Foundation types and selection, footings, rafts, piles, floating foundations, effect of footing shape,
dimexnsions, depth of embedment, load inclination and ground water on bearing capacity, settlement
components, computation for immediate and consolidation settlements, limits on total and differential settlement,
correction for rigidity.
Deep foundations, philosophy of deep foundations, piles, estimation of individual and group capacity, static
and dynamic approaches, pile load tests, separation into skin friction and point bearing, under-reamed piles, well
foundations for bridges and aspects of design.
Earth pressure, states of plastic equilibrium, Culmann's procedure for dertermination of lateral thrust,
determination of anchor force and depth of penetration, reinforced earth retaining walls, concept, materials and
Machine foundations, modes of vibration, determination of natural frequency, criteria for design, effect of
vibration on soils, vibration isolation.
Part- D Computer Programming:
Types of computers, components of computers, history and development, different languages.
FORTRAN/Basic programming, constants, variables, expressions, arithmetic statements library funcations,
control statements, unconditional GO-TO Statements computed GO-TO statements, IF and DO statements,
CONTINUE, CALL RETURN, STOP, END statement, I/O statements, FORMATS,field specifications.
Subscripted variables, arrays, DIMENSION statement, function and subrouting sub-programmes,
application to simple problems with flow charts in civil engineering.
Section- II
Note:- Candidate shall answer questions from any two parts:- Out of four parts below.
Part – A.
Building Construction:
Physical and mechanical properties of construction materials, factors influencing selection, brick and clay
products, limes and cements, polymorfic materials and special uses, damp-proofing materials.
Brickwork for walls, types, caving walls, design of brick masonary walls per I.S. code, factors of safety,
serviceability and strength requirements, detiling of walls, floors, roots, ceiling, finishing of buildings, plastrxing,
pointing, painting.
Functional planning of building, orientation of buildings, elements of fire-proof construction, repairs to
damaged and cracked buildings, use of ferrocement, fibre-reinforced and polymer concrete in construction,
techniques and materials for low cost housing.
Building estimates and specifications, construction scheduling PERT and CPM methods.
Part – B.
Transportation Engineering:
Roads, Traffic engineering and traffic surveys, intersections, road signs, signals and markings.
Classification of roads, plannings and geometric design.
Design of flexible and rigid pavements, Indian Road Congress guidelines on pavement layers and design
Part – C.
Water Resources and Irrigation Engineering,
Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, depression storage, infiltration,
hydrograph, unit hydrograph, frequency analysis, flood estimation.
Ground water flow: Specific yield, storage co-efficient, co-effficient of permeability, confined and
unconfined aquifers, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tube-wells, pumping and
recuperation tests, ground water potential.
Water resources planning: Ground and surface water resources, single and multipurpose projects, storage
capacity of reservoirs, reservoirs losses, reservoir sedimentation, flood routing through reservoirs, economics of
water resources projects.
Water requirement for crops: consumptive use of water, quality of irrigation water, duty and delta, irrigation
methods and their efficiencies.
Canals: Distribution system for canal irrigation, canal capacity, canal Losses, alignment of main and
distributary canals, most efficient section, lined channels, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed
load and suspended load transport cost analysis of lined and unlined canals, drainage behind lining.
Water logging: causes and control, drainage system design, salinity.
Canal structures: Design of regulation, cross drainage and communication works, cross regulators, head
regulartors, canal falls, aqueducts metering flumes and canal outlets.
Diversion head works: Principles of design of weirs on permeable and impermeable foundations, Khosla' s
theory, energy dissipation, stilling basins, sediment exclusion.
Storage works: Types of dams, design principles of rigid gravity and earth dams, stability analysis, foundation
treatment, joints and galleries, control of seepage. construction methods and machinery.
Spillways: Types, crest gates, energy dissipation.
River training: objectives of river training, methods of river training.
Part – D.
Environmental Engineerig: Water supply: Estimation of water resources, ground and surface water, ground
water hydraulics, predicting demand of water, impurities of water and their significance, Physical, chemical and
bacteriological analysis, water borne diseases, standards for potable water
Intake of Water: Pumping and gravity schemes.
Water treatment: Priniciples of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation, slow, rapid, pressure, bifolw
and multi-media filters, chlorination, softening removal of taste, odour and salinity.
Water storage and distribution: Storage and balancing, reservoirs types. location and capacity.
Distribution System: layout, hydraulies of pipelines, pipe fittings, valves including check and pressure
reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems using Hardy Cross methods general principles of
optimal design based on cost headloss ratio criterion, leak detection, maintenance of distribution systems,
pumping stations and their operations.
Sewerage system: domestic and industrial wastes, storm, sewage separate and combined system, flow
through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes inlets, junctions, siphon. Sewage
characerisation: BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water
course and on land.
Sewage treatment: working, Priniciples, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation
ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.
Solid waste: Collection and Disposal.
Environmental Pollution: ecological balance, water pollution control acts. radioactive wastes and disposal
environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines.
Sanitation: site and orientation of buildings, ventilation and damp proof courses, houses drainage, conservancy
and waterbone system of waste disposal, sanitary appliances, latrines and urinals, rural sanitation.
Section- I
Accounting and Finance
Part-I : Accounting, Auditing and Taxation.
Accounting as a financial information system- Imapact of behavioral sciences – Methods of accounting of
changing price levels with particular reference to current Purchasing Power (CPP) accounting Advanced
problems of companies accounts – Amalgamatiin absorption and reconstruction of companies- Accounting of
holding companies – Valuation of shares and goodwill. Controllership functions- Property control legal and
Important provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 – Definition Charge of Income Tax- Exemptions
Depreciation and investmet allowance – Simple problems of computation of income under the various heads and
determination of assessable income – Income Tax authorities.
-- Nature and functions of Cost Accounting – Cost classification – Tenchiques of segregating semivariable costs
into fixed and variable components – job costing – FIFO and weighted average methods or calculating equivalent
units of production – Reconcilation of cost and financial accounts-Marginal Costing-Cost volume profit
relationship: Algebraic formula and graphical representation – Shut down point – Techniques of cost control and
cost reduction – Budgetary control flexible Budgets – Standard costing and variance analysis –Responsibility
accounting-Bases of charging overheads and their inhererent fallacy – Costing for pricing decisions.
Significance of the attest function – Programming the audit work – Valuation and verfication of assets,
fixed, wasting and current assets – Verification of liabilities – Audit of limited companies – appointment status,
powers, duties and liabilities of the auditor – Auditor's report – Audit of share capital and transfer of shares –
Special points in the audit of banking and insurance companies.
Part – II Business Finance and Financial Institutions.
Concept and scope of Financial Management – Financial goals of corporations – capital Budgeting Rules of the
thumb and discounted cash flow approaches – Incorporating uncertainty in investment decision–designing an
optimal capital structure – Weighted average cost of capital and the controversy surrounding the Modigliani and
Miller model, sources of raising short term, intermediate and longterm finace – Role of public and convertible
debentures–Norms and guidelines regarding debtequity rations – Determinants of an optional divident policy–
optimissing models of James E. walter and John Lintner– Forms of divident payment – Structure of working
capital and the variable, affecting, the level of difference of components – Cash flow approach of forecasting
working capital needs – Profiles of working capital in Indian industries – Credit management and credit policy –
Consideration of tax in relation to financial planning and cash flow statements.
Organisation and deficiencies of Indian Money Market structure of assets and liabilities of commercial
banks – Achievements and failures of Nationalisation – Regional rural banks – Recommendations of the Tandon
(P.L) study group on following of bank credit, 1976 and their revision by the Chore (K.B) Committee, 1979 – An
assessment of the monetary and credit policies of the Reserve Bank of India- Constituents of the Indian Capital
Market – Functions and working of All India term financial institutions (IDBI. IFCI. ICICI and IRCI) –
Investment policies of the Life Insurance Corporation of India and the Unit Trust of India – Present State of stock
exchanges and their regulation .
Provision of the Negotiable instruments Act, 1881.
Crossings and endorsements with particular reference to statutory protection to the paying and collecting
bankers – Salient provision of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 with regard to chartering, supervision and
regulation of banks.
Section- II
Organisation Theory and Industrial Relations.
Part I : Organisation Theory:
Nature and concept of Organisation – Organisation goals; Primary and Secondary goals, Single and multiple
goals, ends-means chain – Displacement, succession, expansion and multiplication of goals – Formal
organisation : Type, Structure – Line and Staff. functional matrix and project – Informal organçation, functions
and limitations.
Evolution of organçation theory: (classical, Neo-classical and system approach)- Bureaucracy Nature and
basis of power, sources of power, power structure and politics – Organisational behaviour as a dynamic system :
technical social and power systems interrelation sand interactions – Perception – Status system : Theoretical and
empirical foundations of Maslow Megergore, Horzberg Likert, Vroom, Porter and Lawler, Odam and Human
Models of motivation. Morale and productivity – Leadership. Theories and styles – Management of Conflicts in
organçation – Transactional Analysis – Significance of culture to organçations. Limits of rationality – SimonMarch approach. Organisatinoal change, adaptation growth and development – Organisational control and
Part II : Industrial Relations:
Nature and scope of industrial relations. Industrial labour in India and its commitment – Theories of
unionism – Trade union movement in India – Growth and structure – Role of outside leadership in – Worker
education and other problems – Collective bargaining approaches conditions limitations and its effectiveness in
Indian conditions – Korkers participation in management: philosophy, rationale, present day State of affairs and
its future prospects.
Prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in India: Preventive measures, settlement machinery and
other measures in practice- Industrial relations in public enterprises – Absenteeism and labour turnover in Indian
industries – Relative wages and wage differentials: wage policy in India – The Bonus issue – International
Labour Organisation and India – Role of personnel department in the organçation – Executive development
personnel policies, personnel audit and personnel research.
Section- I
1. The Framework of an Economy. National Income Accounting.
2. Economic choice, Consumer behaviour. Producer behaviour and market forms.
3. Investment decisions and determination of income and employment, Micro-economic models of income,
distribution and growth.
4. Banking objectives and instruments of Central Banking and credit policies in a planned developing
economy. Performance of Commercial Banks in Bihar.
5. Type of taxes and their impacts on the economy. The impacts of the sçe and the content of budgets.
Objectives and Instruments of budgetary and fiscal policy in a planned developing economy.
6. International trade. Tariffs. The rate of exchange. The balance of payments.
International monetary and banking institutions.
Section- II
1. The Indian Economy:
Culding priniciples of Indian economic planned growth and distributive Justice' Eradication of poverty.
The institutional framework of the Indian economy – federal Governmental structure – agricultural and industrial
sector public and private sectors.
National income its sectroal and regional distribution. Extent and incidence of poverty.
2. Agricultural Production:
Agricultural Policy.
Land reforms. Technological change. Relationship with the industrial sector.
3. Industrial Production:
Industrial Policy.
Public and private sector.
Regional distribution. Control of monopolies and monopolistic practices.
4. Pricing Policies of agricultural and industrial outputs:
Procurement and Public Distribution.
5. Budgetary trends and fiscal policy:
6. Monetary and credit trends and policy, Banking and other financial institutions.
7. Foreign trade and the balance of payments.
8. Indian Planning:
Objectives, strategy, experience and problems.
9. Bihar Economy:
Relative position of agriculture and industry, retarders of economic growth, poverty and unemployment, Progress
in Land Reforms.
Section- I
Steady state analysis of D.C and A.C., networks, network theorems, Matrix Algebra, network functions,
transient response, frequency response, Laplace transform, fourier series and fourier transform, frequency
spectral plezero concept, elementary network synthesis.
Static and Magnetics:
Analysis of electrostatic and magentostatic fields, Laplace and Poisson Equations, solution of boundary
value problems, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic wave propagation, ground and space waves, prospagation
between earth station and satellites.
Basic methods of measurements, standards, error analysis, indicating instruments cathode ray oscillo-scope,
measurement of voltage current, power, resistance, inductance, Capacitance, time, frequency and flux, electronic
Vaccum and semiconductor devices, equivalent circuits transistor parameters, determination of current and
voltage gain and input and output impedances biasing techniques, single and multistage, audio and radio small
signal and large signal amplifiers and their analysis reedback amplifiers and oscillators: wave haping circuits and
time base generators, analysis of different types of multivilerator and their uses, digital circuits.
Electrical Machines:
Generator of e.m f., m.m.f. and torque in rotating machinens, motor and generator characteristics of d.c
synchronous and induction machines equivalent circuits, computation parallel operation, phasor diagram and
equivalent, circuits of power transformer, determination of performance and efficiency, auto-transformers, 3-
phase transformers.
Control systems:
Mathematical modeling of dynamic linear control systems, block diagrams and signal flow graphs, transient
surprise response steady state error, stability, frequency response techniques, rootlocus techniques series
Industrial Electronics:
Principles and design of single phase and polyphase rectifiers controlled rectification, smoothing filters,
regulated power supplies speed control circuits for drivers, inverters, d.c to d.c conversion, choppera, timers and
welding circuits.
Part – B (Heavy Currents)
Electrical Machines:
Induction Machines- Rotating magnetic field, Polyphase motor, principle of operation phaser diagram,
Torque slip characteristic, Equivalent circuit and determination of its parameters, circle diagram, starters, speed
control double cage motor, Induction generator. Theory, Phaser diagram, characteristies and application of single
phase motors. Application of two phase induction motor.
Synchronous Machines – e.m.f equation phase and circle diagram, operation on infinite bus, synchronçing
power, operating characterstic and performance by different methods, sudden short circuit and analysis of
oscillogram to determine machine reactances and time constants, motor characteristics and performance methods
of starting applications.
Speical Machines – Amplidyne and metadyne operating characteristics, and their applications.
Power system and Protection – General layout and economics of different types of power stations, Baseload,
peakload and pumped storage plant, Economics of different systems of d.c. and a.c power distribution,
Transmission line parameter calculation, concept of G.M.D. short, medium and long transmission line,
Insulators, Voltage distribution in a string of insulators and grading, environmental effects on insulators. Fault
calculation by symmetrical components, load flow analysis and economic operation steady state and transient
stability, Switchgear methods of extinction, Re-strilking and recovery voltage, Testing of ciruit breaker,
Protective relays, Protective schemes for power system equipment. C.T. and P.T Surges in transmission lines,
Travelling waves and protection.
Utilisation – Industrial drives electric motors for various drives and estimates of their rating; Behaviour of
motors during starting acceleration, breaking and reversing operation; Schemes of speed control for d.c and
induction motors.
Economic and other aspects of different systems of rail traction; mechanies of train movement and
estimation of power and energy requirements and motor rating characteristics of traction motors, Dielectic and
induction heating.
Part – C (Light currents)
Communication System – Generation and detection of amplitude – frequency phase and Pulsemodulate
signals using oscillators, modulators and demodulators, Comparison of modulated systems, noise problems,
channel efficiency sampling theorem sound and vision broadcast transmitting and receiving system, antennas,
feeders and receiving circuits, transmission line at audio radio and ultra, high frequencies.
Microwaves – Electromagnatic wave in guided media wave guide components cavity resonaters, microwave
tubes and solid-state devices, microwave generator and amplifiers, filters microwave measuring techniques,
microwave radiation pattern, communication and antenna systems, Radio aids to navigation.
D.C Amplifiers – Direct coupled amplifiers, difference amplifiers, choppers and analog computation.
Section- I
Principles of Geography:-
Part- A. Physical Geography:
(i) Geomorphology – Origin and evolution of the earth's crust: earth movements and plate tectonics; volcanism;
cycle of erosion.- Davis and Penck; fluvial, glacial, arid and karst land-forms; rejuvenated and polycyclic landforms.
(ii) Climatology: - The atomosphere, its structure and composition; air masses and fronts; cyclones and related
phenomena; climatic classification; koeppon and Thornthwait; groundwater and hydrological cycle.
(iii) Soils and vegetation- Soil genesis, classification and distribution: ecological aspects of savanna and
monsoon forest biomes.
(iv) Oceanography: - Ocean bottom relief. Relief of Indian Ocean floor. Salinity. currents and tides; ocean
deposits and coral reefs;
(v) Ecosystem. – Ecosystem concept, Man's impact on the ecosystem, global ecological imbalances.
Part B. Human and Economic Geography.
(i) Devleopment of Geographical Thought: - Contributions of European and British Geographers, determinism
and possiblilism; Dualism in Geography, quantitative and behavioural revolutions in geography.
(ii) Human Geography- Emergence of man and races of mankind cultural evolution of man; major cultural
relams of the world; international migrations, past and present; world population-distribution and growth;
demographic transtition and world population.
(iii) Settlements Geography: - Concepts of rural and urban settlements, Organs of Urbançation; Rural settlement
patterns; city classifications; urban spheres of influence and the rural urban fringe, the internal structure of cities;
problems of urban growth in the world.
(iv) Political Geography:- Concepts of nation and state; frontiers, boundaries, and buffer zones; concept of
heartland and rimland;federalism.
(v) Economic Geography.- World economic development-measurement and problems; concept of resources,
world resources, their distribution and global problems; world energy crisis; and limits to growth; world
agriculture-typology and world agricultural regions; theory of agriculturaral location, world industry-theory of
location of industries; world industrial patterns and problems; world trade and world trade patterns.
Section- II
Physical Aspects: - Geological history, Physiography and drainage systems; orign and mechanism of the
Indian monsoon, soils and vegetation.
Human Aspects – Tribal areas and their problems; population distribution, density and growth; population
problems and policies.
Resources – Conservation and utilçation of land mineral water biotic and marine resources; ecological problems
and their management.
Agriculture – Irrigation intensity of cropping, crop combinations, green revolution, agricultural land use policy,
Rural economy-Animal husbandry, social forestry and household industry.
Industry: - History of industrial development; factors of location study of mineral based, agro-based and forestbased industries, industrial complexed and industrial regionalisation.
Transport and Trade – Study of the network of roadways railways, waterways, intra and inter-regional trade and
the role of rural market centres.
Settlements- Rural Settlement patterns; urban development in Indian and its problems, internal structure of
Indian cities; town planning, slums nad urban housing; national urbanisation policy.
Regional Development and planning. Five-years plan; multilevel planning; state, district and block level planning
regional disparities in development in India.
Political Aspects.- Political problem of India, state reorgançation; the international boundary of India and related
issues; India and geopolitics of the Indian Ocean area.
Geography of Bihar under the following heads: - Physiographic divisions, soils, forests, climate, pattern of
agriculture, problems of drought-prone and flood affected regions and their solution, chief mineral resources-iron
ore, copper, bauxite mica and coal; principal industries-iron and steel, aluminium, cement, Sugar: principal
industrial regions, problems of population in Bihar, problem of tribal population and their solution; pattern of
urbanisation in Bihar.
(General Geology, Geomorphology, Structural Geology, Palacontology and Stratigraphy)
(i) General Geology:
Energy in relation to Geo-dynamic activities. Origin and interior of the Earth. Dating of rocksuoy various
methods and age of the Earth. Volcanoes-causes and products; volcanic belts. Earthquakes-causes, geological
effect and distribution.
Geosynelines and their classification, Island areas, deep sea trenches and mid-ocean ridges, sea-floor
spreading and plate tectonics. Isostrasy, Mountains types and origin. Brief ideas about continental drift, Origin of
continents and oceans. Radioactivity and its application to geological problems.
(ii) Geomorphology:
Basic concepts and significance. Geomorphic processes and parameters. Geomorphic cycles and their
interpretation. Relief features; Topography and its relation to structures and lithology. Major landforms.
Drainage patterns. Geomorphic features of Indian subcontinent and Chotanagpur plateau.
(iii) Structural Geology:
Stress and strain ellipsoid, and rock deformation. Mechanics of folding and faulting. Linear and planer structures
and their genetic significance Petrofabric analysis, its graphic representation and application to geological
problems. Tectonic framework of India.
(iv) Palacontology:
Micro and Macro-fossils. Modes of preservation and utility of fossils, General idea about classification and
nomenclature. Organic evolution and the bearing of pala contological studies on it.
Morphology, classification and geological history including evolutionary trends of biachiopods, bivaleves,
gastropods, ammonoids, trilobites, echinoids and corals.
Prinicpal groups of vertebrates and their main morphological characters. Vertebraes life through ages;
dinosaurs: siwalik vertebrates. Evolution of horses, elephants and man, Gondwana flora and its importance.
Types of micro fossils and their significance with special reference to petroleum exploration.